DESPITE an overall drop in passenger numbers during August, flights leaving Gatwick Airport were close to full after almost 90 per cent of available seats were taken.The latest traffic figures from Gatwick show that on average 87 per cent of available seats on flights leaving from the airport were full, marking a record high for the airport.Similarly, long haul flights departing from the Crawley based air hub reported that nearly 90 per cent of available seats were taken.Traffic to long haul destinations, excluding the North Atlantic, continued a year on year growth trend after increasing by 11.3 per cent during August.However, this comes despite a modest fall in the number of passengers using Gatwick for their travels.During August, 3.6m people flew through the airport, marking a 1.3 per cent decrease on the same month in 2009, when 3.7m passengers chose to fly out of Gatwick.Likewise, Gatwick said that over the last 12 months, it has seen a two per cent fall in the number of customers travelling through its doors. In the 12 months ending in August 31.5m people used Gatwick compared to 32.2m in 2009. Share More From Our Partners Florida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.org980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.com‘Neighbor from hell’ faces new charges after scaring off home buyersnypost.comSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.com‘The Love Boat’ captain Gavin MacLeod dies at 90nypost.comWhy people are finding dryer sheets in their mailboxesnypost.comBill Gates reportedly hoped Jeffrey Epstein would help him win a Nobelnypost.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.com Full flights for Gatwick despite drop in traffic whatsapp by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStoryTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastNoteabley25 Funny Notes Written By StrangersNoteableyMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleMoneyPailSerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity TimesBetterBe20 Stunning Female AthletesBetterBemoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comElite HeraldExperts Discover Girl Born From Two Different SpeciesElite Heraldautooverload.comDeclassified Vietnam War Photos The Public Wasn’t Meant To Seeautooverload.com Tuesday 14 September 2010 8:17 pm whatsapp Tags: NULL KCS-content Show Comments ▼
whatsapp Monday 21 February 2011 3:15 am Share Tags: NULL John Dunne JJB raises £31.5m in life-saving share sale whatsapp Show Comments ▼ More From Our Partners Supermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.org Struggling sportswear retailer JJB Sports has raised £31.5m in a share sale that represents an essential first step towards survival. The firm, in which America’s richest man Bill Gates holds a stake of about 5.5 per cent, said on Monday the cash was raised in a firm placing and a placing and open offer of 630m shares at 5 pence each.Of the 315m shares in the open offer, acceptances of just 3.7 per cent were received, with the balance of 96.3 per cent allocated to shareholders which backed JJB’s firm placing, including its two largest investors Harris Associates and Crystal Amber.The capital raising was backed by JJB’s shareholders.JJB has said it requires a larger capital raising, in addition to the £31.5m, along with creditor and investor support for a second company voluntary arrangement (CVA) in as many years if it is to avoid going into administration.The second CVA proposes the closure of up to 95 JJB stores and the retention of a core group of 150 stores.The firm, which employs about 6,300 staff, is also in takeover talks with thriving rival JD Sports Fashion.Shares in JJB, which have lost two thirds of their value over the last year, closed on Friday at 3.81 pence, valuing the business at about £37m.
Topics: Sports betting Strategy AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter 19th February 2020 | By contenteditor Kambi joins Swedish igaming operator association Sports betting provider Kambi has been elected as the latest member of Branschföreningen för Onlinespel (BOS), Sweden’s igaming operator trade association.The provider becomes the association’s first B2B member, and one that already Kambi works in partnership with a number of existing BOS members.Kambi joins the likes of Mr Green, Kindred, Betsson, bet365, LeoVegas, Scientific Games and GVC Holdings as member of BOS.“Kambi is delighted to have been elected to join BOS, an organisation aligned with our aims of building a successful and sustainable betting market in Sweden that not only protects players through high rates of channelisation, but safeguards the integrity of sport through sensible regulation,” Kambi’s associate general counsel Tommaso Di Chio said.BOS secretary general Gustaf Hoffstedt added: “I am convinced that Kambi has plenty to offer in our efforts to create a prosperous Swedish gambling market. Having worked with a broad variety of gambling operators, their experience is unique.“I am particularly convinced that Kambi’s knowledge will contribute greatly to the effort on conserving and strengthening the integrity in sports.”Earlier this month, Kambi posted a year-on-year increase in revenue and profit for 2019, putting this down primarily to its expansion into several new markets within the US. Revenue for the 12 months to 31 December 2019 amounted to €92.3m (£77.7m/$100.8m), up 21.1% from €76.2m in the previous year.This week, the BOS urged Swedish regulator Spelinspektionen to drop proposals to ban certain sports betting markets, saying the measures would push consumers to unlicensed operators.The organisation reiterated its concerns that by bringing certain bets out of the regulated market, authorities would then lose the ability to monitor suspicious betting and to effectively police match-fixing. Regions: Europe Nordics Sweden Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Sports betting provider Kambi has been elected as the latest member of Branschföreningen för Onlinespel (BOS), Sweden’s igaming operator trade association. Sports betting Email Address
I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997” Pfizer vaccine: would I buy easyJet and IAG shares now? Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Image source: Getty Images Edward Sheldon has a position in Fundsmith. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Like this one… Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Enter Your Email Address Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares On Monday morning, I wrote a rather bearish article on easyJet (LSE: EZJ) shares. Noting that easyJet had been forced to scale back its flying schedule due to lockdown measures and that analysts were downgrading EPS forecasts, I said that EZJ shares were risky.It’s fair to say that article didn’t age well! A few hours after it was published, news of Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine broke, and easyJet’s share price jumped 35%. Clearly, a lot of investors see a vaccine as a game-changer for the airline industry.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…Would I invest in easyJet and other airline stocks such as IAG (LSE: IAG) now that an effective vaccine may not be too far off? No, I wouldn’t. I remain convinced that from a long-term investment point of view, there are much better stocks to buy.“A machine for losing money”In the short term, there’s every chance that easyJet and IAG shares could keep rising. After all, these stocks have been well and truly hammered this year. EasyJet, for example, is still down nearly 50% year to date.History shows though that in the long run, airlines tend to be poor investments. One reason for this is that the airline industry is extremely capital intensive. To keep a large fleet of planes running smoothly costs a colossal amount of money.Given the huge costs they face, most airlines simply don’t earn a return above their cost of capital over the long term. This means that they end up destroying shareholder wealth. Fundsmith manager Terry Smith explains this concept well in a video here. Smith says that airlines are a “truly awful sector” from an investment standpoint and that they are a “machine for losing money.”Source: FundsmithThe world’s greatest investor, Warren Buffett, has a similar view on airline stocks. “The worst sort of business is one that grows rapidly, requires significant capital to engender the growth, and then earns little or no money. Think airlines,” he said in 2007.Buffett actually went against his own advice and bought airline stocks a few years back. He then got burnt badly in the Covid-19 stock market crash. He has since dumped all his airline stocks.easyJet and IAG: too many things can go wrongAside from the capital intensive nature of the industry, another problem with airline stocks from an investment point of view is that so many things can go wrong.For example, a spike in the oil price can impact profits negatively. Meanwhile, a terrorist attack can badly affect sentiment towards the sector and send airline stocks down sharply.Speaking of things that can go wrong, Covid-19 could still present a challenge for companies like easyJet and IAG. A vaccine will help the industry, for sure. But it’s unlikely to be a magic bullet. In my view, it could take years for the airline industry to get back to where it was pre-Covid.Better stocks to buyAll things considered, I’m not going to invest in easyJet or IAG shares, despite the news of the Pfizer vaccine.These airline stocks could keep rising in the short term. However, history shows that they’re unlikely to be good long-term investments.As a long-term investor, I think there are better stocks to buy. Edward Sheldon, CFA | Friday, 13th November, 2020 | More on: EZJ IAG See all posts by Edward Sheldon, CFA
Image source: Getty Image Paul Summers | Friday, 12th February, 2021 | More on: SONG Paul Summers has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Although cash returns can never be guaranteed, I consider buying dividend-paying stocks to be one of the least taxing ways of generating passive income. Today, I’m focusing my attention on what I believe to be one of the best shares to buy on the UK market.On songFTSE 250 member Hipgnosis Songs Fund (LSE: SONG) invests in music royalty rights. Every time someone streams a track it owns, Hipgnosis receives a cut, albeit a very small one. The £1.2bn-cap already had almost 61,000 songs on its books by January. A little over 3,000 of these have hit the top spot in the charts. Recent catalogue additions includes work by Neil Young and Shakira. 5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…The performance of SONG since it arrived on the market in July 2018 has been solid, although not spectacular. Anyone buying the shares when Hipgnosis listed will have seen their capital grow by around 15%.As one might expect, it’s not been a straight line up. Like everything else, the shares tumbled in 2020 as the coronavirus took hold. Then again, anyone buying the shares at the bottom of the market crash would have enjoyed an even bigger gain of around 28% by now. Naturally, this is far below the recovery seen in glitzy tech stocks. However, it’s a far better return than that of the FTSE 250 index as a whole over the same period.Share price performance aside, it’s the dividend stream that interests me the most about Hipgnosis.Cheap incomeAnalysts expect the business to return 5p per share to holders in the current financial year. This gives a yield of 4.2%, based on the price of the stock as I type.Now, 4.2% may not be the biggest cash return I can find in the FTSE 250, but it’s not to be sniffed at. Let’s not ignore the fact that the best Cash ISA currently returns just 0.55% in interest. While keeping some cash in reserve for life’s little emergencies is prudent, holding any more than truly necessary will seriously limit the ability to grow one’s wealth. Another attraction to SONG’s dividends is that they’re likely to be covered over twice by profits. This means a cut looks unlikely as things stand. What a contrast to many other supposedly-reliable income stocks on the market!But the dividend stream isn’t the only thing that makes me think Hipgnosis may be one of the best shares to buy today. A price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio of just 10 looks cheap, even if capital gains aren’t a priority.It’s also worth paying attention to the firm’s PEG (price/earnings to growth) ratio. As a rough rule of thumb, anything below 1.0 suggests investors are getting a lot of bang for their buck. Hipgnosis’ PEG ratio is just 0.4. Not without riskAlthough I consider Hipgnosis to be among the best shares to buy, no investment is without risk. There’s always a chance the company may be overpaying for the rights it’s buying. There’s also no guarantee that listening tastes won’t change and the popularity of formerly-lucrative artists may fall. On top of the above, you have the 1.35% ongoing charge eating into returns. While nothing in this world comes free, it’s vital to consider the opportunity cost of not buying other income-generating stocks where the only ongoing fee is charged by the broker. Enter Your Email Address Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Markets around the world are reeling from the coronavirus pandemic…And with so many great companies trading at what look to be ‘discount-bin’ prices, now could be the time for savvy investors to snap up some potential bargains.But whether you’re a newbie investor or a seasoned pro, deciding which stocks to add to your shopping list can be daunting prospect during such unprecedented times.Fortunately, The Motley Fool is here to help: our UK Chief Investment Officer and his analyst team have short-listed five companies that they believe STILL boast significant long-term growth prospects despite the global lock-down…You see, here at The Motley Fool we don’t believe “over-trading” is the right path to financial freedom in retirement; instead, we advocate buying and holding (for AT LEAST three to five years) 15 or more quality companies, with shareholder-focused management teams at the helm.That’s why we’re sharing the names of all five of these companies in a special investing report that you can download today for FREE. If you’re 50 or over, we believe these stocks could be a great fit for any well-diversified portfolio, and that you can consider building a position in all five right away. Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares 5 Stocks For Trying To Build Wealth After 50 See all posts by Paul Summers Passive income? I reckon this UK dividend stock could be one of the best shares to buy today Click here to claim your free copy of this special investing report now! I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement.
As part of the report’s research the author’s 700 people in the UK voluntary sector and found that 87% of respondents agreed that innovation is important to my organisation, with 44% agreeing strongly. However, the survey found that “the higher up you are in a voluntary organisation, the more likely you are to feel positive about your organisation’s ability to innovate.” Innovation was not gaining ground at lower levels in the sector.The author’s concluded that “this would indicate that voluntary organisations are still operating as traditional hierarchies with most of the key ideas and decisions being imposed from the top.”UK Fundraising’s Howard Lake was one of a range of people who contributed to the report. He is quoted as saying “As someone keen to see charities exploit the internet effectively, I remain surprised how in 2003 so few are using it in an innovative manner. A national charity publishing an e-mail newsletter for the first time is sadly still newsworthy!Following the report’s launch, nfpSynergy will be running a series of one day seminars on innovation and creativity for not for profit organisations between November 2004 and March 2005. The seminars are designed to help voluntary sector organisations become more innovative.They will include sessions on ways in which the vision and values of an organisation can drive innovation; exploring which environments are most conducive to innovation; and creative thinking techniques including which ones to use to tackle certain problems.The seminars will be open to all not for profit organisations and the rates will be based on the size of the organisation. A mximum of 20 delegates will be accepted for each seminar. About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis nfpSynergy publishes innovation guide for charities Research agency nfpSynergy has published ‘Innovation Rules! A roadmap to creativity and innovation for not-for-profit organisations’. The organisation hopes that the report “will provide charities with a greater understanding about what innovation could do for them on a day-to-day basis.”The free 48-page report, written by Elisha Evans and Joe Saxton, includes sections on issues such as innovation myths; innovation versus creativity; reducing the barriers to innovation and how innovation is linked to mission and vision.The author’s admit that it is not the first or last word on creativity. “While it contains many excellent ideas,” they write, “the vast majority are taken from other people. Our aim here is to produce a (free) report that will help not-for-profit organisations turn their innovation rhetoric into reality.” Advertisement Tagged with: Management 38 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 28 September 2004 | News
14 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 26 October 2007 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Major Donors: The Key to Successful Fundraising
Reporters Without Borders notes with satisfaction that the National Press and Publications Council decided on 29 September to allow the English-language daily The Citizen to resume publication after being suspended for 27 days. The council said the newspaper is now complying with all administrative requirements.——–5.09 – Press Council allows English-language daily to resume publishingReporters Without Borders hails yesterday’s decision by the National Press and Publications Council (NPPC) to allow the English-language Sudan Tribune daily to resume publishing after being suspended since 1 September.“This is a very satisfactory decision,” the press freedom organisation said. “The NPPC is sending a positive signal at a difficult time for the Sudanese press.”The NPPC lifted the suspension after the newspaper’s owner and editor, William Ezekiel, agreed to employ at least 10 professional journalists, appoint an editing manager and editing secretary and to travel to Khartoum within 24 hours in response to any future summons from the NPPC. The Sudan Tribune is based in the southern city of Juba.Reporters Without Borders urges the NPPC to show the same spirit of dialogue with the other daily that was suspended on 1 September, The Citizen, so that it can also resume publishing as soon as possible.———–02.09.2008 – Press council closes two English-language dailies indefinitelyReporters Without Borders condemns a decision by the National Press and Publications Council (NPPC) on 1 September to suspend two privately-owned English-language national dailies based in the south of the country, The Citizen and Sudan Tribune, for an indefinite period.“The closure of these two southern-based dailies is the harshest measure taken so far in the wave of censorship launched by the government at the start of the year,” Reporters Without Borders said. “Depriving the semi-autonomous south of its means of expression will just fuel the tension between the south and Khartoum. The NPPC should be more reasonable and rescind this decision.”In a letter to the Sudan Tribune on 1 September, the NPPC said it was closing the newspaper for “administrative” reasons. The previous day, the security forces went to the place where the latest issue of The Citizen was about to be printed and told employees its publication was forbidden.The NPPC claims that, by choosing to be based in Juba, the capital of the semi-autonomous south, the editors of the two newspapers are violating their licences, which require them to be in Khartoum.Sudan Tribune editor and owner William Ezekiel told Reporters Without Borders the NPPC also accuses his newspaper of obstructing the 2005 peace agreement that ended the civil war between the north and the south. He said the closure was “unacceptable” and “serves the interests of the ruling party” in Khartoum.The closures came after several months of what the southern media describe as a government-orchestrated campaign of intimidation. Ezekiel said his newspaper had not been able to appear for nearly 20 days as the authorities had seized all the copies from its printing presses in Khartoum on 17 occasions.Censorship was officially lifted in Sudan in July 2005, after the peace accord was signed with the rebels of the southern Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. The government restored censorship for the privately-owned media on 6 February of this year after they referred several times to Khartoum’s support of a Chadian rebel offensive against N’Djamena. Receive email alerts Follow the news on Sudan Sudan : Press freedom still in transition a year after Omar al-Bashir’s removal April 6, 2020 Find out more Organisation News SudanAfrica News March 29, 2020 Find out more News Coronavirus infects press freedom in Africa Help by sharing this information April 10, 2020 Find out more RSF_en Covid-19 in Africa: RSF joins a coalition of civil society organizations to demand the release of imprisoned journalists on the continent October 1, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 English-language daily allowed to resume publication News to go further SudanAfrica
News UpdatesDelhi HC Issues Notice On Plea Challenging Domicile Reservation For Delhiites In NLU Delhi [Read Order] Karan Tripathi16 Jun 2020 7:52 AMShare This – xDelhi High Court has issued notice in a plea seeking quashing of the provision giving 50% reservation to students who passed their qualifying exam from the Institute located within the National Capital Territory. The Division Bench of Justice Hima Kohli and Justice Subramonium Prasad has issued notice to the Delhi Government and has asked it to file its reply before the next date…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginDelhi High Court has issued notice in a plea seeking quashing of the provision giving 50% reservation to students who passed their qualifying exam from the Institute located within the National Capital Territory. The Division Bench of Justice Hima Kohli and Justice Subramonium Prasad has issued notice to the Delhi Government and has asked it to file its reply before the next date of hearing. Filed by Pia Singhh, the petition submits that the reservation policy of respondent University to give 50% reservation to those students who have passed their qualifying degree from Institute situated in Delhi is not only against the constitutional mandate under art 15(3) but is also against all reasonable and logical norms. It is argued that the classification for 50% reservation to students who have passed their qualifying degree from Institute situated in Delhi is far away from intelligible differentia. Also, there seems no object behind this classification which the respondent university seeks to achieve. Furthermore, providing 22% reservation to OBC and 10% reservation to EWS category without increasing the total no. of seats is also unconstitutional and against the mandate of guidelines issued by MHRD. “Since, the petitioner belongs to General/Unreserved category, and is also a permanent resident of Delhi and intends to pursue her LL.M. from NLU Delhi; the provision of 50% reservation to the students of Delhi and also, the provision of 22% OBC & 10% EWS reservations in LL.M. without increasing the number of seats as per MHRD guidelines is adversely affecting her chances of selection and her future career prospects”, it is urged. The petition narrates that on 03.01.2007, Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act, 2006, giving inter alia reservations to Socially and Educationally Backward Classes [SEBCs] also known as Other Backward Classes [OBCs] in Central Educational Institutions came into force. This act was enacted only for central educational institutions but all the state or union territory governments issued notifications to implement OBC reservation in the institution as per the mandate of the Act of 2006. Section-5 of the aforesaid act clearly says that every Central Educational Institution shall, with the prior approval of the appropriate authority, increase the number of seats in a branch of study or faculty over and above its annual permitted strength so that the number of seats, excluding those reserved for the persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes, is not less than the number of such seats available or actually filled, whichever be less, for the academic session immediately preceding the date of the coming into force of this Act. All state and Union territory govt. issued guidelines to their educational institutions on the same line of Section 5. Consequently, every educational institution throughout the territory of India which has implemented the 27% OBC reservation increased its seats by 54% so that Unreserved/general category seats are not affected. On 17.01.2019, Ministry of Human Resource Development issued an Office Memorandum wherein it gives direction to Central educational institutions as well as chief secretaries of all state government/UTs to give effect to the provision of 103rd constitutional amendment. Similar direction as mentioned in Section-5 of the aforesaid was given to all educational institutions via this OM and all institutions were permitted to increase seats by 25% so that unreserved category seats are not affected. The petitioner has averred that In the previous academic year i.e. 2019-20 total seats for LL.M was 70. Out of these seats 15% for SC & 7.5% for ST were vertically reserved and 5% for PWD were horizontally reserved. There was no other kind of reservation provided to any class, so number of seats were following: Total seats=70 CATEGORY NO. OF SEATS UNRESERVED 64 (including 3 PWD seats) SC 11 (including 1 PWD seats) ST 5 On 02.03.2020, NLU Delhi has issued its e-prospectus for under graduate & post graduate course for academic year2020- 21. A provision for 50% reservation was made for students of Delhi. Also, provision for 22 % OBC & 10% EWS reservation in addition to 15% SC & 7.5% ST reservation was made for both B.A. LL.B. and LL.M. courses from the academic year 2020-21. “It is apparent by analysing seat matrix of both academic years that in the previous year seats for unreserved category were 64 but in this academic year only 30 seats were notified for the unreserved category. Hence, NLU Delhi has grossly violated the guidelines issued by MHRD and reservation for OBC & EWS were implemented without increasing the seats”, it is sought to be contended. Further, it is brought to the attention of the Court that while making 50% horizontal reservation for students of Delhi two classification was made by respondent i.e. First, Candidates passing the qualifying examination from a recognised School/ College/ Institute located within the NCT of Delhi only will be eligible to apply for seats reserved for Delhi Region. Second, in case of Distance education students, if the Centre of examination/ study Centre is located in the N.C.T. of Delhi, the candidate shall be considered under the Delhi Region and if the Centre of examination/ study Centre is located outside N.C.T. of Delhi, he/ she shall be considered under the All India Level seats. “So, as per these guidelines respondent could have increased at least 50% seats for implementing 22% OBC reservation and 25% seats for implementing 10% EWS reservations in this academic year but instead by doing so respondent has cut down these seats from the Unreserved category seats which is beyond the authority of the respondent university”, it is advanced. Moreover, it is argued that the horizontal reservation given by respondent University to the students of Delhi region is sui generis and strange- “The classification between students who are passing the qualifying examination from a recognised School/ College/ Institute located within Delhi and who are not passing from such an institute is not germane to the very rule of intelligent differentia. The respondent has recognised the former as “students of Delhi regions” . This classification is beyond any reason and bereft of logic and rule” It is admitted that “any State can give a reservation to the ‘domiciled’ person of the state, reason being that such state funds the institute and hence may seek welfare for the residents of that particular state”. “But respondent university is not giving this reservation to the domicile of the state but to the students who have passed their qualifying examination from Delhi. Delhi is a metro city and capital of India and a hub for the prominent educational institutes. Students from every corner of the country came here to study. Circumstances may arise that many students who are the permanent resident of Delhi may not get admission in any oschool/college situated in Delhi and they got enrolled in any other institutes located outside Delhi”, it is argued. “In such cases, these students who are permanent residents of Delhi would be paying all taxes to the state of Delhi but will not get the reservation in the Institution of their State instead any other student from down south, east, west or north will get that benefit”, the petitioner has pointed out. “The classification for the students of distance education is not only ridiculously drafted, but also, sufficient to stunt any prudent, right thinking and reasonable person. Those students whose Centre is located in Delhi will get the benefit of reservation, as such students will be considered as students of Delhi. This classification is harassing and imaginary only. Thousands of such Institution work in Delhi NCR and surrounding states whose Centre of examination falls in Delhi for the sake of convenience. And the Centre of examination is completely dependent on the discretion of the examination authority. In distance education a student comes only for examination to that Centre. This classification has created a sheer absurd situation in which any student from any part of India will come for a few days for his examination only (his institute though situated out of Delhi) and will get “Students of Delhi” reservation”, reads the plea. The Petitioner has alleged that she failed to carved out from where the respondent University drew the power to implement such reservation policy “because it is published nowhere that state assembly of NCT Delhi has made any law related to this 50% reservation”. “Hence, making such provision of reservation by way of an executive order is also against the law enshrined under Article 14 & 15”, it is pointed out. “And even we consider that the University has such power then also the quantum of reservation i.e. 50% is bad in law as it has reduced the all India unreserved category seats to the extent of 20% of total seats. If we add up all the kinds of reservation provided by the respondent university then the quantum of total reservation is 80% which means, now OBC reserved seats are more than the Unreserved category seats. Hence, quantum of 50% reservation is also against the principle of equality enshrined under part-III of the constitution”, it is suggestedClick Here To Download Order[Read Order] Next Story
ColumnsChallenging The Validity Of The IT Rules, 2021 – Can Rules Relating To Digital Media Be Made Under The IT Act? Raghav Ahooja4 March 2021 5:09 AMShare This – xThe Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY) notified the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 (“IT Rules 2021”). The said rules inter alia cover guidelines in relation to intermediary liability and code of ethics to be followed by intermediaries and publishers that process content on digital media. ‘Digital media’…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY) notified the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 (“IT Rules 2021”). The said rules inter alia cover guidelines in relation to intermediary liability and code of ethics to be followed by intermediaries and publishers that process content on digital media. ‘Digital media’ is under the ambit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB), as per a recent amendment to the Allocation of Business Rules, 1961 (Allocation of Business Rules). While the entry ‘Matters relating to Cyber Laws, administration of the Information Technology Act. 2000 (21 of 2000) and other IT related laws’, which would include Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) and the making of rules thereunder, is under the ambit of the MEITY according to the Allocation of Business Rules. The Ministry in Charge would be MEITY insofar the subject is intermediary liability as well as, though arguably, code of ethics to be followed by the intermediaries processing content on digital media for that matter, but not the publishers processing content on digital media as that is the subject matter of the MIB, and would not be covered under the IT Act. However, it can be argued that a head like ‘Cyber laws’ i.e the law of the internet and matters related therewith is wide enough to include the regulation of publishers processing content on digital media. When there are two or more ministries involved with a subject matter, for example in this case – Cyber laws (which would naturally include cyber crimes) – the Ministry in Charge i.e MEITY would consult the Ministry of Home Affairs etc. (as it deals with Criminal law that is the subject matter of MHA), under the Transaction of Business Rules, 1961 (Transaction of Business Rules), but still it would be MEITY that would be in charge by virtue of Cyber laws being under its ambit. Moreover, in a 2020 case with similar facts, the Delhi High Court has observed on the subject that “the whole of the Allocation of Business Rules, 1961 have to be read harmoniously and cannot be read in such a manner that [the clauses are] totally ignored”. Also observing that such an interpretation which can be given to the Allocation of Business Rules, 1961 should be favoured which does not create any conflict or confrontation between different clauses and without rendering any entry redundant. The facts in the case were as follows – The entry ‘CBI’ has been placed under the ambit of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) under the Allocation of Business Rules, however Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure have been placed under the ambit of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Similar to this case, the petitioner argued that since the entries of Criminal Law and procedure (which are wide enough to extend to and include the Central Bureau of Investigation) fall under the ambit of the MHA, the matters relating to the CBI would fall under the ambit of the MHA. This argument was rejected by the Court, as it held that the entry ‘CBI’ falls directly under the ambit of the DoPT making it the controlling ministry/department, and that a departure from this would create confusion and would render the entry ‘CBI’ under the DoPT redundant. Similarly, if the overarching entry of ‘Cyber laws’ is given a liberal interpretation, this would render the entry, under the ambit of MIB, of ‘Digital/Online media’ (which as an entry is straightforward like that of CBI) redundant. The Court’s reasoning is in line with the maxim “Generalia specialibus non derogant”, meaning a special provision would exclude the operation of the general provision, which would entail that a special entry would be given precedence over a general entry when there is confusion/conflict while interpreting. Assuming, arguendo, that regulation of digital media in relation to processing of content on digital media by publishers as an aspect can be covered under the broad terminology of ‘cyber laws’, digital media still directly falls under the ambit of I and B, and the legislation or the delegated legislation under this hypothetical legislation in the form of rules can only be enacted and made by MIB as it is the nodal Ministry/ Ministry in Charge. It has been conceded by MEITY itself in the IT Rules 2021 that the part regarding ‘digital media’ is to be “administered by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting” The legal maxim of “Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum” meaning ‘What cannot be done directly, cannot be done indirectly’ applies here. It is a two way street – MEITY cannot legislate upon digital media as a delegate or otherwise since according to the Allocation of Business Rules, it is the job of the MIB to introduce Bills, bring out rules under such Bills made into Acts etc. on the subject. On the other hand, the MIB or its officers cannot under the IT Act (which is a Cyber law) act as a delegate and administer a part of it. If cannot be done directly (as it is prohibited for the MIB to legislate under the IT Act, since the Allocation of Business rules are mandatory, the non observance of which renders the concerned notification void), it also cannot be done indirectly (through a notification of the MEITY, signed by one of its officers, issued under the IT Act – that lets the MIB administer a part of it). If the MIB were to seriously regulate digital media, it would have to be through a law passed by the Parliament, while the MIB would have to consult MEITY etc., but it would still be the MIB that would be in charge. By not passing a law, the Parliament is abdicating its legislative duties similar to what happened in the case of regulation of Aarogya Setu, where a ‘Protocol’ was issued instead of an Ordinance or a legislation. It is also to be noted that the IT Act does not seek to regulate ‘digital media’. It does not even define ‘digital media’, for that matter. It has been observed by the Supreme Court in various judgments that if a rule goes beyond the rule making power conferred by the statute, the same has to be declared ultra vires. The basic test is to determine and consider the source of power which is relatable to the rule. Similarly, a rule must be in accord with the parent statute as it cannot travel beyond it. Before a rule can have the effect of a statutory provision, two conditions must be fulfilled, namely (1) it must conform to the provisions of the statute under which it is framed; and (2) it must also come within the scope and purview of the rule making power of the authority framing the rule. If either of these two conditions is not fulfilled, the rule so framed would be void. It has been ruled that it is a well recognised principle that the conferment of rule making power by an Act does not enable the rule making authority to make a rule which travels beyond the scope of the enabling Act or which is inconsistent therewith or repugnant thereto. A Constitution Bench has also held that the statutory bodies cannot use the power to make rules and regulations to enlarge the powers beyond the scope intended by the legislature. Rules and regulations made by reason of the specific power conferred by the statute to make rules and regulations establish the pattern of conduct to be followed. Therefore, the said rules go beyond the scope and purview of the IT Act, and travel beyond the parent Act. Thus, the rules are ultra vires the IT Act & are liable to be challenged in Court on both the grounds.Views are personelNext Story